There’s nothing sweeter than a sleeping child, and it can also be pretty darn adorable to hear your zonked-out kiddo let out the occasional snore.

But if your child snores several days a week, that’s something to pay close attention to, according to a large new study. The research, published Tuesday in the journal Nature Communications, found a link between frequent snoring and structural brain changes in children, as well as behavioral issues like hyperactivity and inattention.

Researchers looked at data from MRI brain images of more than 10,000 9- to 10-year-olds in the United States, as well as data from those children’s parents on how often their kids snore and standard checklists used to measure several different areas of childhood behavior.

The researchers found that kids who snore habitually — three or more times per week — had thinner gray matter in several areas of their brains, including those that help manage reasoning and impulse control.

“These are parts of the brain responsible for behavioral regulation. … It applies to maintenance of attention and what we call ‘cognitive flexibility,’ which is basically regulation of one’s own behavior,” study researcher Dr. Amal Isaiah, an associate professor of otorhinolaryngology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, told HuffPost.

Frequent snorers also tended to exhibit increasing severity of “problem behaviors,” he added.

“I can’t say there is a cause and effect here,” Isaiah said. “But from a biological perspective, if you think about snoring it means that air is not flowing freely.” That could mean that children are either waking up frequently, or it could actually change the way children’s blood carries oxygen to their brains, which would mean they’re not getting enough of it. And it’s possible that either of those mechanisms (or both) could be behind the link between changes in brain structure and children’s behavior, he hypothesized.

Estimates suggest that nearly 30% of children have minor, occasional snoring, while somewhere between 10% and 12% of children experience primary snoring — or snoring that occurs more than two nights per week, and happens frequently throughout the night. A smaller percentage of children grapple with obstructive sleep apnea, which is a more serious sleep disorder that causes a person to repeatedly stop and start breathing while they sleep.

The new findings are not the first to link snoring with brain changes and potential behavioral issues in children, but it is the largest study to date to confirm the connection, Isaiah said.

He noted that the findings considerably strengthen guidance from the American Academy of Pediatrics that parents should take children’s snoring seriously.

The group has long said that it is important for parents and caregivers of frequent snorers to talk to their child’s health care provider about it because it can be so disruptive to their sleep, which children depend on in so many ways.

And, as with adults, snoring in children can be treated. In some cases, it requires surgery to remove a child’s tonsils and adenoids, which can obstruct the airway. In other instances, simple tweaks to a child’s sleep environment may be enough to help alleviate snoring or at least decrease the likelihood that children will be negatively impacted by fragmented sleep. Those types of changes really can be pretty basic, like setting a consistent sleep schedule and setting up children’s bedrooms to be as quiet and comfortable as possible, the Sleep Foundation says.

Ultimately, the message for parents of snorers is not to panic, but also not to ignore the issue altogether.

“You don’t need to run to treatment right now, but it’s something you should raise with the pediatrician,” Isaiah said.

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